Table of Contents
What are the different Mechanical properties of metals?
Following are the Mechanical Properties of Metals
It is the property of breaking without not too much permanent distortion. It may be due to the fragility of the grain boundaries or the crystals themselves. Cast iron is brittle because its structure is broken up by chips of graphite, which is a brittle material. Frailty is often referred to as brevity. Hot, or lack of red in steel, is when it is brittle in the red-hot state.
It is caused by excess sulfur which is present as iron sulphide and forms a brittle membrane around the steel crystals. The lack of cold means that the metal is brittle when cold. In steel, the cold fault is produced when the phosphorus content is too high.
A metal is ductile when it can be stretched in tension without breaking. Wire drawing depends on ductility for its successful operation. A ductile metal must be both strong as well as plastic, e.g. the lead wire is difficult to stretch because the resistance of the lead is low.
A metal’s elasticity is its power to return to its original shape after deformation by force. The material can be stretched, compressed or its volume changed by pressure on all sides (eg immersion in a liquid). Many materials behave to some extent like powerful elastics and, within limits, regain their shape when the load on them is removed.
The elastic limit is the elastic limit of a material and is expressed in newtons per unit area (mm2, cm2, or m2). For example, if the elastic limit of the material were 23 kilonewtons per square centimeter, then with a bar of material 1 square centimeter in area, the material would return to its original length from a load of 23 kilonewtons. If this loading intensity were exceeded, the bar would assume a permanent stretch, often called a permanent set.
When a material is pulled through a testing machine for the purpose of finding its tensile strength, stretching occurs before the bar fractures. Elongation is the amount of that stretch and is usually expressed as a percentage of the original length.
The hardness of a metal is a measure of its ability to resist scratches, wear and abrasion, indentation by harder bodies, marking by a file, etc. Machinability and cutability are also important hardness properties in the shop. A rough but often reliable test of the hardness of a hardened tool is to see if the edge of a thin film will touch it.
The Brinell hardness of a metal is found by pressing a ball onto the surface of the metal, the hardness number is found by dividing the charge on the ball by the surface area of the print. To test the steel, the ball is 10 mm in diameter and the load is 3000 kilograms. Brinell machines are usually supplied with a chart that gives the hardness number when the diameter of the ball print is known.
This is the property of permanently extending in all directions without breaking by pressing, hammering, rolling, etc. It requires the metal to be plastic, but it doesn’t depend as much on strength, for example. Lead is a very malleable metal.
This is a property very similar to malleability and involves permanent deformation without rupture. It is the opposite extreme of elasticity, as can be demonstrated by comparing the behavior of a piece of elastic rubber and a piece of plasticine under a deformation force.
Plasticity is necessary for forging, and metals can be made of plastic by heating, for example. steel is plastic when in a bright red heat.
The strength of a metal is its ability to resist the application of force without breaking. In service, a material may have to withstand tensile, compressive, or shear forces. The strength of a material is measured by loading it into a testing machine.
The ultimate strength is the load required to fracture the unit area (mm2, cm2, or m2) of a metal cross-section. Tenacity is the maximum strength in tension. Maximum strength and toughness are always expressed in newtons per unit area (usually in newtons per square millimeter).
It is the amount of energy a material can absorb before it fractures. A measure of a metal’s toughness can be obtained by cutting it, placing it in a vice, and tapping the end with a hammer. Certain woods are very strong, which is why walnut is a good material for a sledgehammer.
What are the primary factors that influence the mechanical properties of metals?
The mechanical properties of metals are influenced by various factors such as crystal structure, grain size, composition, temperature, and the presence of impurities or alloying elements.
What is the difference between strength and hardness in metals?
Strength refers to the ability of a metal to withstand an applied load without deformation or failure, while hardness refers to a metal's resistance to localized surface indentation or scratching. Strength is related to a metal's ability to carry loads, while hardness reflects its resistance to wear or abrasion.
How does the grain size affect the mechanical properties of metals?
In general, smaller grain sizes lead to increased strength and hardness in metals. This is because smaller grains hinder the motion of dislocations, which are responsible for plastic deformation. Therefore, metals with finer grains tend to exhibit improved mechanical properties.
What is the significance of the yield strength in metals?
Yield strength represents the stress level at which a metal undergoes a transition from elastic deformation to plastic deformation. It is an important parameter as it defines the maximum stress a metal can sustain without permanent deformation.
What is the difference between ductility and brittleness in metals?
Ductility is the ability of a metal to deform plastically under tensile stress, while brittleness refers to a metal's tendency to fracture without significant plastic deformation. Ductile metals can undergo extensive deformation before failure, while brittle metals fracture with little or no plastic deformation.
How does temperature affect the mechanical properties of metals?
The temperature has a significant impact on the mechanical properties of metals. Generally, metals become stronger and harder at lower temperatures but may become more brittle. Elevated temperatures can cause softening and reduced strength due to increased atomic mobility and recrystallization processes.
What is fatigue strength, and why is it important?
Fatigue strength refers to a metal's ability to withstand cyclic loading without failure. It is crucial because many engineering structures and components experience repetitive loading, which can lead to fatigue failure over time. Understanding a metal's fatigue strength helps ensure the durability and reliability of these structures.
How do alloying elements affect the mechanical properties of metals?
Alloying elements are added to metals to enhance specific mechanical properties. They can alter the crystal structure, grain size, dislocation mobility, and precipitation behavior, leading to changes in strength, hardness, ductility, and other mechanical properties.
What is the concept of work hardening or strain hardening?
Work hardening, also known as strain hardening, is the process by which a metal becomes stronger and harder as it is plastically deformed. When a metal is subjected to plastic deformation, dislocations multiply and tangle, hindering further dislocation movement. This increase in dislocation density leads to improved mechanical properties.
How are the mechanical properties of metals evaluated experimentally?
Mechanical properties of metals are typically evaluated through various standardized tests, including tensile tests, hardness tests (e.g., Brinell, Rockwell, Vickers), impact tests, fatigue tests, and creep tests. These tests provide quantitative data on a metal's strength, hardness, ductility, toughness, and other mechanical characteristics.
Also, read the rectilinear motion