Table of Contents
Introduction of gram seed:
Gram, commonly known as Chickpea or Bengal gram, is India’s most important crop. It is used for human consumption as well as animal feed. Fresh green leaves are used as a vegetable, while chickpea straw is excellent fodder for livestock. The seeds are also used as a vegetable.
The shape of the gram seed:
Gram seed can be taken as an example to study the structure of the dicot seed. Gram seeds are brown. They are pointed in one direction and rotate in the other direction.
This contained small fruit called a vegetable. A gram capsule has two or three seeds. The seeds are attached to the pod wall by a funiculus stem. When the mature seed is closed, the funiculus leaves a scar on the seed called the hilum.
Just blow the hilum that sleeps the micropile in the form of a small pore. Water is absorbed by the micropile during seed germination. When a soaked seed is squeezed, water is seen to come out of the micropile. The seed is covered with a hard seed verminate. The seed verminates consist of two parts, a brownish outer testa, and a papery white membranous tegmen.
The function of the seed is protection. Protects seeds from desiccation, electrical damage, and excessive heat. It also protects the seeds from the attack of bacteria, fungi, and insects.
When removing the seed coat, two large, fleshy cotyledons are visible. The two cotyledons are attached laterally to the embryonic axis. The embryonic axis projects beyond the cotyledons to one side. The axis’s lower pointed end is the radicle representing the embryonic or rudimentary root. An extreme pity. It’s called a pula. It represents the first apical bud of the future plant and turns into a bud. The Mulan appears sometime after the separation of the two cotyledons. The part of the axis between the radicle and the point of attachment of the cotyledons to the axis is called the hypocotyl. The part between the pumula and the cotyledons is the epicotyl. Axis and shape of cotyledon or “embryo.”
Sowing of gram seed:
The best time to sow gram seed in a flat area is from October to December in well-draining soil. People believe that the proper gathering of Gram cultures can be harvested only in the Rabi harvest season. Despite this, it can be planted in Kharif station elsewhere.
Planting in the Rabi season, the Gram crop can be harvested in April through the first week of May.
Production of gram seed:
With more than 90% of the total area of trees, the wild grass is formed by a group of very small leaves. These green leaves are lightly scented and fresh.
Their leaves, even kohl green peas, are appreciated. Later, small pea seeds began to puncture these cavities. This is the first green gram that has been seen in grass cultivation.
These green grams are soft and easy to squeeze. During the month, the pea grass turns green with the final harvest of the green part of the grass.
By drying these green grams, they are ready to go to market.
Climatic conditions necessary for the growing of grams:
As Gram is a Rabi season crop, its cultivation is not affected by hot weather. As usual with other Gram crops, Gram cultivation begins shortly after the end of the rainy season. Rain provides enough moisture in the soil for growing Gram.
If Gram cultivation is taking place in the Rabi season, you first need sufficient moisture in the soil.
Types of gram seed:
Gram 1137: Recommended for mountainous areas. Produced an average yield of 4.5 QTL/acre. Virus resistant.
PBG 7: Promotion of Punjab Structures. This variety is moderately resistant to Ascochyta rust and wilt and root rot. The
grain size is medium, giving an average yield of 8qtl/acre. Grows in 159 days.
CSJ 515: Suitable for irrigation, small seeds and brown colour, weight 17 g/100 seed. Moderately tolerant to root rot and tolerant to ascoquite rust. It matures in 135 days and gives an average use of 7 QTL/acre.
BG 1053: It’s a type of Kabuli. It begins to flower and mature in 155 days. The seeds are pure white and bold in size. It gives an average rendezvous of 8qtl/acre. It is suitable for cultivation in all regions under irrigation.
L 550: Kabuli mountain range. Semi spreading and starting different flowers. Grows in 160 days. The seeds are pure white in colour. It gives an average rendezvous of 6qtl/acre.
L 551: It’s a type of Kabuli. Resistant to wilt disease. It is ready to harvest in 135-
it has brown seeds. It is ready to finish giving a speech in four hours at home. It gives an average yield of 8-10 qtl/acre.
GNG 1969: Grown in student watering cans for outdoor plantings. It has a beige seed colour. It is ready for you to have a good job and success. It gives an average yield of 9 QTL/acre.
GLK 28127: I made a hole and went in, the seed ripened and tasted of any colour, and the head mill gull oval. [This verse may not be a part of this translation] [This verse may not be Kati. It gives a yield strength of 8qtl/acre.
GPF2: Trees should not keep the habit of growing. It is highly resistant to Ascochyta pests and will be a feature. It grows on 165 acres and gives an average yield of 7.6 QTL/acre.
Aadhar (RSG-963): Moderately resistant to wilt, root rot, B.G.M and leaf spot, pod borer, and nematodes. Ready to harvest 125-130. It gives a yield of the potential of 6qtl/acre.
Anubhav (RSG 888): I work in dry farming. Moderately resistant to black spots and root rot. Ready to harvest 130-135. It gives an average yield of 9QTL/acre.
Pusa Chamatkar: Kabuli variety. It tolerates fading. Ready to harvest 140-150. It gives an average yield of 7.5 qtl/acre.
PBG 5: Started in 2003. The variety grows 165 losses and gives the worker a yield of 6.8 QTL/acre. It has medium-sized grains and is green in colour. It is either- tolerant to wilt or root variety.
PDG 4: Introduced in 2000. The variety grows at 7.8 QTL/acre and gives tangible results. Various things are painful to interrogate, including the conversation between the spirits and the end.
PDG 3: Gives a yield of 7.2 QTL/acre and a variety that grows up to 100 Bible of propagation.
L 552: Introduced in 2011. The variety sleeps 157 and gives a working yield of 7.3qtl/acre. It has thick grains and the weight of 100 grains is 33.6g.
Use a seed rate of 15-18 kg/acre for the desi variety and 37 kg/acre for the Kabuli variety. An increase in decigram of seed up to 27 kg/acre of sowing to be interpreted for the delivery of November and 36 kg/acre of sowing to be carried out in the first harmony of the beginning of December.
Pests and their control:
Termites: They feed on the roots or near the roots of the plant. The affected plant shows signs of wilting. It can be easily uprooted. It can affect the part of the plant and also near the growth.
To protect the seeds from termites, treat the seeds with Chlorpyrifos 20EC@10ml/kg of seeds. If infection occurs in standing plants, spray Imidacloprid@4ml/10litre of water or Chlorpyrifos@5ml/10Ltr of water.
Cutworm: A cutworm remains buried in the soil to a depth of 2 to 4 inches. Cut the base of the plant, branches, or stem. Eggs are laid in the soil. A green caterpillar with a redhead.
Adopt crop rota, on. Use only well-rotted cow dung. You just pick up the worms with your hands and destroy them. Avoid planting tomatoes. Okra near the grass field. In low infestation, spray Quinalphos 25EC@400 ml/200-240 liters of water per acre. In case of heavy infestation, Spray with Profenophos 50EC@600 ml/acre in 200-240 liters of water.
Pod borer: It is a terrible pest that causes up to 75% damage reducing the yield. It feeds on leaves, causing skeletonization of leaves, and also feeds on flowers and green pods. They make round holes in the pods and eat the beans.
Set pheromone traps for Helicoverpa armigera@5/acre. If the infestation is low, it is selected by hand with a large mist. First, apply HNPV or Neem extract at 50 gm/liter of water. The use of chemicals is mandatory after the ETL level. (ETL: 2 first instar larvae/plant or 5-8 eggs/plant).
Spray Deltamethrin 1%+Triazophos 35%@25 ml/10 liters of water when the plant is at 50% flowering stage. Spray Emamectin Benzoate 5%G@3 gm/10 liters of water 15 days after spraying with Deltamethrin Triazophos.
In case of severe burns, spray Emamectin Benzoate 5%SG@7-8 gm/15 liters or Flubendiamide 20%WG@8 gm/15 liters of water.
Disease and treatment of gram crop:
Spot: A dark green spot with lump-like bodies formed on the stem, branches, leaves, and pods. If there is too much water, the whole plant will be severely affected by rust.
For farming, use variable varieties. Before planting, treat the seeds with a fungicide. In case of disease spray with Indofil M-45 or Captan @360 gm/100-liter water per acre. If necessary, repeat the spraying at 15-day intervals.
Grey Mould: Small water-soaked spots that appear on paper. Spots on infected leaves turn brown. In severe cases, brown necrotic spots appear on the branches, petioles, leaves, and flowers of the plant at full maturity. The affected stem will split, and the plant will die. Before planting, do a seed treatment. When the infection is detected, spray the plant with Carbendazim at 2 gm/liter of water.
Rust: This disease is most severe in Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. Small circular to oval, light or dark black pustules form under the leaves. In the next phase, the pustules darken, and the affected leaves fall off.
Use rust-resistant seeds for planting. If symptoms appear, spray the plant with Mancozeb 75WP @ 2 gm/liter of water. Within 10 days, take two more sprays.
Wilt: This disease causes significant yield loss. It can affect the planting stage and the top stage of plant growth. The first damaged form shows the drooping of the petioles and gives a dark green colour. After that, all the leaves turn red and have a straw colour.
Grow species that may change. In the first stage of bitterness, the control is to mix 1 kg of Trichoderma in 200 kg of well-rotted cow dung and keep it for three days and put it in an innovative place. If wilting is observed in the fields, spray 300 ml of Propiconazole with 200 liters of water per hectare.
Harvesting of gram crop:
When the plant is dry, and the leaves turn brown and start to fall, the plant is ready to be harvested. Cut the plant with a sickle. Keep the plants for 5 to 6 days. After it is completely dry, spray by hitting the plants with sticks or trampling them underfoot.
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