Midpoint Formula

How to Find the Midpoint in Mathematics

Introduction:

In mathematics, a midpoint is crucial when dealing with various geometric figures and objects. It allows us to find the exact center between two given points, providing valuable information for calculations and analysis.

Understanding the Midpoint

Before diving into the formula and derivation, let’s grasp the concept of a midpoint. In geometry, the midpoint refers to the exact center of a line segment. It is equidistant from both ends of the segment, dividing it into two equal parts. The coordinates of the midpoint can be determined by using a simple formula.

The formula for Finding the Midpoint

To find the midpoint between two points, (x₁, y₁) and (x₂, y₂), we use the following formula:

Midpoint = ((x₁ + x₂) / 2, (y₁ + y₂) / 2)

Derivation of the Midpoint Formula

To derive the midpoint formula, we consider the coordinates of two points, A and B, which define a line segment. Let’s assume that A has coordinates (x₁, y₁) and B has coordinates (x₂, y₂).

To find the midpoint M, we notice that it lies exactly halfway between A and B. Therefore, the x-coordinate of M should be equidistant from the x-coordinates of A and B, while the y-coordinate of M should be equidistant from the y-coordinates of A and B.

Now, consider the x-coordinate of the midpoint. To find it, we add the x-coordinates of A and B and divide the sum by 2. Mathematically, it can be represented as:

x-coordinate of M = (x₁ + x₂) / 2

Similarly, for the y-coordinate, we add the y-coordinates of A and B and divide the sum by 2, resulting in:

y-coordinate of M = (y₁ + y₂) / 2

By combining these two equations, we obtain the midpoint formula:

Midpoint = ((x₁ + x₂) / 2, (y₁ + y₂) / 2)

Example

Example 1: Finding the Midpoint of Two Points

Let’s consider two points, A(2, 4) and B(6, 10). To find the midpoint, we will use the midpoint formula:

Midpoint = ((2 + 6) / 2, (4 + 10) / 2)

          = (8 / 2, 14 / 2)

          = (4, 7)

Therefore, the midpoint between A(2, 4) and B(6, 10) is (4, 7).

Midpoint Formula in Three-Dimensional Space:

The midpoint formula can also be extended to three-dimensional space, where we consider the x, y, and z coordinates. The formula for finding the midpoint between two points (x₁, y₁, z₁) and (x₂, y₂, z₂) is as follows:

Midpoint = ((x₁ + x₂) / 2, (y₁ + y₂) / 2, (z₁ + z₂) / 2)

Example 2: Finding the Midpoint in Three-Dimensional Space

Let’s find the midpoint between two points, A(1, 2, 3) and B(4, 6, 8). Using the midpoint formula, we have:

Midpoint = ((1 + 4) / 2, (2 + 6) / 2, (3 + 8) / 2)

          = (5 / 2, 8 / 2, 11 / 2)

          = (2.5, 4, 5.5)

Hence, the midpoint between A(1, 2, 3) and B(4, 6, 8) is approximately (2.5, 4, 5.5).

Also, read Supplementary angles

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