Table of Contents
I. Wood and woody biomass in Classifications of Biomass
In classifications of biomass Woody biomass is a biomass-derived from trees. Classifications of biomass are classified into construction waste, sawmill waste and forest waste (such as twigs and fallen leaves in the mountains). Woody biomass is a renewable energy source, as new forests can be developed through afforestation and proper maintenance. This chapter focuses on the possible environmental impacts of using woody biomass for energy.
It also explains the global energy potential of biomass and the energy potential in Japan, with particular emphasis on the use of energy from woody biomass after the 2011 Great Eastern Japan earthquake. Next, a method for assessing potential environmental impacts using the life cycle (LCA) and the geographic information system (GIS) is presented, discussing some of the economic and social aspects of the use of wood biomass for energy.
Requirements in Classifications of Biomass
One of the main classifications of biomass the pulp and paper industry now has the largest system for using woody biomass in the world and is one of the main users and producers of bioenergy. However, the production of pulp and paper requires high consumption of chemicals, energy and water and is characterized by low raw material efficiency and energy consumption, low innovation development and high product price volatility. Furthermore, printing paper consumption has decreased due to the increased use of digital media through computers, tablets, and smartphones.
The traditional pulp and paper industry must transform to respond to the current situation. Integrating the biorefinery into an existing paper mill has been identified as a potential path towards long-term sustainable growth for the paper industry and biorefineries. The integrated process can transform low-margin paper production into a multi-product sales system that includes new revenue streams through the production of biomaterials, bioenergy, biofuels and biochemicals and thus improve efficiency and profitability.
Classifications of biomass the superstructure-based process synthesis approach provide the necessary overview and analysis for the commercial development of the biorefinery integrated with the pulping processes. Here, the superstructure represents all possible paths in an integrated network of processing options. This study aims to identify a promising process path for an integrated biorefinery with an existing paper mill considering several objectives (scenarios).
The three scenarios considered include pasta sales and biochemical production as alternatives (Scenario I), biochemical co-production with pasta sales (Scenario II) and multiple biochemical productions (Scenario III). Are the scenario of classifications of biomass.
II. Herbaceous biomass
Classifications of biomass are this biomass includes most agricultural and herb crops, including bamboo and wheat straw. Parts of relatively young and essentially non-woody trees also exhibit similar characteristics. Herbaceous biomass has a variable composition depending on the time of year and tissue type. The composition can also be strongly influenced by the availability of minerals or nutrients in the soil.
In classifications of biomass Herbaceous biomass is classified into cereal crops, pastures, oilseeds, tubers and legumes, flowers, herbaceous biomass from gardens, parks, pruning, vineyards, orchards, and mixtures of all these. This biomass can be used raw (direct residues from the field) or transformed (by the food industry.
Cereal crop residues include the following plant parts: dried stalks, pods and husks, and their mixtures classifications of biomass. Of the fields are considered stems, shells and their mixtures. In oilseeds, are considered stems, leaves, pods, bark and their mixtures. Tuber crop residues are supplemented by stems, leaves, roots and their mixtures. Stems, leaves, fruits and their mixtures can be harvested from legumes.
It should be noted that incorporating legumes into an annual biomass cultivation system can reduce the need for nitrogen fertilizers, which will reduce inputs for bioenergy production (Mitchell et al., 2016); however, they also contribute to anthropogenic emissions of nitrous oxide on the planet. In this case, nitric oxide mainly results from the decomposition of legume residues (Burton et al., 2011). Finally, from the cultivation of flowers, vegetable residues can be used (when their quality is not adequate), stems, leaves, and a mixture
In turn, the processed residues can come from herbaceous residues without chemical treatment and chemically treated herbaceous residues and their mixtures. This type of biomass is mainly used in combustion and co-combustion plants, where the technology is well developed, has high efficiency and low emissions; however, herbaceous crops that have a very high K content can be harmful to biomass combustion equipment. It is also used, albeit to a lesser extent, in gasification plants mixed with other biomass sources.
III. Aquatic biomass
It is one of the classifications of biomass Aquatic biomass is composed of different species of micro and macroalgae and aquatic plants. Interest in such raw materials for conversion via hydrothermal treatment has received considerable interest over the past decade. There are two main reasons for this; firstly, the aquatic biomass is naturally wet after harvesting and secondly, hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) can convert all fractions of the raw material, not just lipids, into valuable bio-crude. Other biofuel production processes require a dry feedstock, which involves an energy-intensive dehydration step not required for HTL treatment.
HTL processing of aquatic biomass has received more attention for microalgae as they are suitable and can potentially provide the highest biomass yields per area. Screening studies on algal species and reaction conditions are numerous in the literature, while continuous processing on a pilot scale has been demonstrated in recent years. Marketing efforts are underway but are hampered by the prohibitive costs of microalgae raw materials.
Upgrading biofuel and cleaning HTL process waters through various approaches has also been demonstrated, but algae have not been widely used for HTL biofuel production so far. While it is a very promising technology economically and environmentally, the transformation of algae into fuel via HTL has not progressed from pilot scale to industry, mainly due to the teething problems associated with algae cultivation.
IV. Biomass from animal and human waste
It is the most common classification of biomass. The most common sources are bone, meat meal, various types of animals manure and human manure. In the past, these residues were recovered and sold as fertilizers or simply used in agricultural land, but the introduction of stricter environmental regulations on pollution, health and odour problems have led to proper waste management.
Anaerobic digestion is the most economical method of converting these residues into useful products. For example, biogas, as a bioenergetic product of the process, can be burned directly for cooking or heating rooms and water.
V. Mixtures of biomass
Regardless of biomass, there are challenges associated with its use as a fuel for large-scale energy production. This can result from the physical and chemical characteristics of the fuel, including very low energy density, slag and scale problems, high water content, high lignin content, and a host of other problems. One possible solution is the use of what could be termed functional biomass or biomass blends. The concept is based on identifying the different physical and chemical properties of individual biomasses and the problems or challenges associated with them.
Once these are known, functional biomass can be engineered by mixing various raw materials in appropriate quantities to obtain a chemically and physically acceptable fuel. The chemical properties can be achieved by blending and, if the production of functional fuels is combined with a pelletizing process, it is possible to produce biomass pellets with properties adapted to the specific use. In Denmark, this approach has been studied from the point of view of fuel design and pellet production (Nikolaisen et al., 2005) as well as from the point of view of the application.
Nikolaisen et al. (2005) investigated residual biomass mixtures mainly based on ash content and component considerations to mitigate deposit formation; the mixtures were pelleted and tested in a laboratory-scale combustor. It was found that blending 96% coffee with 4% kaolinite (96M4Kao) provided excellent pellet properties (low dust, low energy consumption), as was also 15% cigar residue and 85% coffee (15M8M10) and 75% carrageenan with 25% shea shavings (75M6M5).
In terms of chemical composition, the first functional mixture of kaolinite is added to improve the properties of the ash for a lower propensity to deposit, while the second mixture mixes an alkali-rich residue with a sulfur-rich residue, and the last mixture combines two alkaline residues – rich biomass. These are the classifications of biomass.